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DASS 21 Depression Anxiety Stress Screening

The DASS 21 is a self-report evaluation scale aimed at revealing the severity of symptoms that the patient suffers from and which can be associated with depression or anxiety or are consistent with stress manifestations.
The scale can be used for screening. However, you should consider a full assessment and evaluation by a psychiatrist or a mental health specialist consultation for diagnosis.

Each of the three dimensions in DASS 21 is interpreted differently:

Level/Disorder Depression Anxiety Stress

Normal 0 – 4 0 – 3 0 – 7
Mild 5 – 6 4 – 5 8 – 9
Moderate 7 – 10 6 – 7 10 – 12
Severe 11 – 13 8 – 9 13 – 16
Extremely severe ≥14 ≥10 ≥17

DASS 21 Explained

This mental health questionnaire reveals the severity of behavioral and emotional symptoms correlated with anxiety and depressive disorder and stress.

The scale consists of 21 items and takes around 5 minutes to complete.

When selecting the answer choices, the most important thing to consider is what you are currently experiencing and what you have experienced in the past week.

Score interpretation

Each of the questions in DASS 21 is awarded several points, varying from 0 to 3. There are three dimensions evaluated:

■ Depression;

■ Anxiety;

■ Stress reactions.

Each question has the same four answer choices available:

■ Never – did not apply to me at all, awarded 0 points;

■ Sometimes – applied to me to some degree, or some of the time, awarded 1 point;

■ Often – applied to me to a considerable degree, or a good part of the time, awarded 2 points;

■ Almost always – applied to me very much, or most of the time awarded 3 points.

Each of these dimensions is awarded a partial score between 0 and 18 to 24, depending on how many questions are assigned to the dimension (see in the above section).

Source

Lovibond PF, Lovibond SH. The Structure of Negative Emotional States: Comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories, Behav. Res. Ther., Vol 33: No 3, 335-343, 1995.

Other references

1. Henry JD, Crawford JR. The short-form version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): construct validity and normative data in a large non-clinical sample. Br J Clin Psychol. 2005; 44(Pt 2):227-39.

2. Wiseman TA, Curtis K, Lam M, Foster K. Incidence of depression, anxiety and stress following traumatic injury: a longitudinal study. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2015; 23:29.


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ABOUT TMS DIRECTORY | TMS Directory connects TMS groups, communities, and individuals across the U.S. and internationally. (TMS) or Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a leading-edge technology that uses magnetic waves to gently stimulate nerve cells in the brain. Moreover, this is a non-invasive treatment most commonly used for the treatment of major depression.

TMS THERAPY | Furthermore, TMS therapy is a particularly useful tool for treatment-resistant depression in patients who have failed to respond to medication or other treatments.

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Please also see
rTMS for the Treatment of Depression in Adolescents
Holmes And Rahe Stress Scale
Postnatal Depression Screening
Mental Health Screening Tools
GAD-7 Anxiety Screening Tool

Therapy for depression